Borycki, Andre W. Beggs, Nicole A. Courtney, Yun Jiang, Scott R. Beach, Judith T. Patel, Magada Arreola, Federico G. Antillon, Raul C. Ribeiro, Scott C. Authors: Robert T. Zozus Jr. They have provided different ICTs, namely: mobile phones, computers and internet, digital cameras and microscope, and multimedia - to establish climate resilient agricultural practices. Mobile phones were used by farmers to contact the plant doctors about their issues.
Digital cameras and microscope are being used to record pests, plants, water levels, soil condition, and also record the problems of the farmers. Plant doctors also use multimedia to educate farmers through video presentations of different agricultural topics. Further, computers and internet, through the use of software - such as MS Office and Pallithaya - has helped in creating a database that allowed plant doctors to keep track of the problems that have occurred and are occurring for farmers, and the solution they could provide. Subsequently, they use google maps and GIS to identify the location of the farmers and use it as a guide in resistance to the climate and climate change vulnerabilities that are known in the area.
The project has helped citizens to recognize and map out areas that are most prone to climate change and has assisted in improving their knowledge of available resources in their area, and ways on how to adapt to climatic changes. In Vietnam, the adaptation of ICT to environmental planning was used to solve the increasing problems with landslide and erosion aggravated by climate change. A participative and integrative approach was followed in creating the plan. GIS Mapping of areas prone to erosion and landslide was done and planting of Lo O a type of bamboo plant was proposed to stop land degradation.
A GIS model for location selection for Lo O bamboo planting was combined with the map of danger areas for erosion and landslide to create prioritized planting areas. The Lo O plantation map was produced then was physically verified if it's suitable. The final adaptation plan was completed by the research group and farmer representatives after the final check was integrated to the GIS model building. While livelihood systems may mostly be readily available in a certain household, it still depends on whether larger units such as the local and national government's can implement it properly.
Assets, institutions, and infrastructures to be used will be provided for by the unit which has a better capacity in implementing ICT4D technologies. This could not be realized in a household alone. There could be a knowledge about climate change adaptation and on how ICT can help in diminishing the problems it causes. However, without any systematic input and implementation from the government, it will face many hurdles that will make it impossible to implement. To create a more accurate and larger picture of how ICT can help in resolving climate change, the focus must be on the efforts of the national government rather than the actions and efforts of each household or community.
ICT as information, communication, and technology, provides three key aspects for influencing the education sector to develop the capacity for improving the influx of data that comprises one's learning curve. This provides alternative solutions to the obstacles encountered in the conventional educational system. Interventions almost always include the provision of computers, necessary software and internet connection, and curriculum development, industrial design, content creation and literacy training and capacity building on the use of technologies, establishment of information systems HR, Management and Financial.
Information and Communications Technology for Education or ICT4E as sector of ICT4D is an initiative that addresses issues and challenges regarding education of children and adults, especially in the developing countries. The use of Information and Communication Technologies ICTs play a vital role in promoting and making developments in terms of enhancing and ensuring the quality of education that the students receive and acquire.
It has multiple impacts on student achievements and motivations, including but not limited to: confidence in computer usage, increased autonomy when learning, improved development in language and communication skills. The purpose of ICT in education is to bridge the gap and promote online learning and interactive experience to students regardless of location in sharing ideas and information using different platforms of communication.
ICT can improve the quality of education and bring better outcomes by making information easily accessible to students, helping to gain knowledge and skill easily and making training more available for teachers. The Hole in the Wall is an experiment and a project done by Dr. Sugata Mitra  that focused on giving access to technology to children to improve computer literacy and learning in an unsupervised environments - Minimally Invasive Education MIE. University of the Philippines Open University UPOU coined ODeL to refer to an education that uses various technologies for both synchronous and asynchronous communication for learners and instructors virtually.
By maximizing the use of technology to create a wide range of learning, UPOU promotes lifelong learning in a more convenient way. In the Philippines, there are keynotes that have been forwarded to expand the definition of ICT4E from an exclusive high-end technology to include low-end technology; that is, both digital and analog. Further, ICT4E in the Philippines does not only focus on students but also on the development of Filipino teachers and computer laboratory managers.go to site
Information and communication technologies for development - Wikipedia
In addition, are training initiatives for computer laboratory managers on a Web-based learning management system. Many current initiatives to improve global, regional and national literacy rates use ICT, particularly mobile phones and SMS. For example, in India a project titled "Mobile Learning Games for English as Second Language Literacy" aimed to enhance the literacy sub-skills of boys and girls in low-income rural areas and in urban slums via mobile game-based learning of English in non-formal, formal and informal education contexts. If mobile phones could encourage illiterate traders to become partially literate, how useful would it be to incorporate mobile phones in adult literacy classes?
In Senegal, "The Jokko Initiative" provided participants the opportunity to practice basic literacy skills via SMS messaging during an ongoing non-formal literacy component offered as part of an overall Community Empowerment Program CEP.
Participants also made use of digital and visual literacy skills linking mobile phone menu features with visual symbols and signs related to mango picking—a common community livelihood practice. The overall Somali community empowerment programme has been documented as boosting job training and placement for 8, young people women and men.
Tests before and after showed statistically significant improvement in skills, with the youth livelihoods programme being linked to job placements. In Pakistan, the BUNYAD Literacy Community Council BLCC launched the Mobile Rickshaw Libraries initiative in - a mobile library service that aims to promote reading habits among young people and adults, in response to the country's growing problem with students dropping out of school, and adults not getting opportunities to practice reading.
Ebook: Enabling Health and Healthcare through ICT
It also supports women's empowerment by hosting reading materials that would strengthen the literacy skills of their female population. This projects uses ICTs and other e-learning materials - the rickshaw libraries have laptops and multimedia screens, and use educational websites such as eLearn. Some of the educational materials are downloaded in advance, so people can still use them on the available laptops even without internet connections. As of July , the initiative has already reached 6, students and adult women.
In Philippines, on the aspect of gender empowerment particularly for breastfeeding mothers, social media is used in order to disseminate effective and proper ways of increasing one's breast milk supply. ICTs can be a supportive tool to develop and serve with reliable, timely, high-quality and affordable health care and health information systems and to provide health education, training and improve health research.
This is approximately million people wherein three out of every four are living in developing countries, half are of working age, half are women and the highest incidence and prevalence of disabilities occurs in poor areas. At the international level, there are numerous guiding documents impacting on the education of people with disabilities such as Universal Declaration of Human Rights , moving to the Convention against Discrimination in Education , the Convention on the Rights of the Child , the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities CRPD includes policies about accessibility, non-discrimination, equal opportunity, full and effective participation and other issues.
Although these do not specifically mention the right to access ICT for people with disabilities, two key elements within the MDGs are to reduce the number of people in poverty and to reach out to the marginalised groups without access to ICT. Moreover, ICT can give everyone the access of global information about health and medication that would educate everyone more about anything in this field, but most importantly, ICT can also spread awareness to the youth and younger generations through the use of internet.
It can be any of the following types: . Business-to-business or B2B — buying and selling between businesses or companies using enterprise e-commerce platforms in a closed environment. Business-to-consumer or B2C — traditional retail model conducted over the internet.
Consumer-to-consumer or C2C — consumers trade, buy, and sell products and services online. Consumer-to-business or C2B — consumers sells products and services to businesses online. Business-to-government or B2G — businesses whose sole clients are governments.
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Barriers to e-Commerce adoption in developing countries  based on Barriers to ecommerce in developing countries by Japhet E. Lawrence, PhD and Usman A. Tar, PhD. The growth of e-Commerce is very high in developed and developing countries but it is curbed due to infrastructural, socio-cultural, socio-economic, and political and governmental barriers.
ICTs, when employed correctly, can be effectively used to aid political development. Often, this progress is achieved by strengthening the cooperation between the government and its citizens, commonly done through interaction. Government agencies, sectors, and organizations take advantage of ICTs to establish and maintain an online presence — a factor that is crucial to information-based societies where the majority of information is accessed, generated and shared via the internet.
The specific purposes mentioned in each stage above indicate the convenience, efficiency, and security that ICTs provide. Moreover, it depicts how to maximize these benefits by implementing interactive features. As a result, the government is able to reach out further to its citizens. It can answer to their needs in a more transparent, speedy, and cost-effective way. New forms of technology, such as social media platforms, provide spaces where individuals can participate in expressions of civic engagement.
Researchers are now realizing that activity such as Twitter use " Social Networking Sites SNS are indispensable for it provides a venue for civic engagement for its users to call attention to issues that needs action because of the nature of social media platforms as an effective tool in disseminating information to all its users. Social media can also be used as a support venue for solving problems and also a means for reporting criminal activity or calamity issues that affects the well being of communities.
Social media is also used for inciting volunteerism by letting others know of situations in places that requires civic intervention and organize activities to make it happen. Civic engagement plays a large part in e-government, particularly in the area of Transparency and Accountability.
ICTs are used to promote openness in the government as well as a platform for citizens to report on anomalous government activities for the purpose of reducing corruption and in promoting efficiency. Even before the advent or popularity of social media platforms, internet forums were already present. Here, people could share their concerns about pertinent topics to seek solutions. In third-world countries like the Philippines, the text brigade is an easy method for informing and gathering people for whatever purpose.
The e-government action plan includes applications and services for ensuring transparency, improving efficiency, strengthening citizen relations, making need-based initiatives, allocating public resources efficiently and enhancing international cooperation. Writing about ICTs for government use in , W. Howard Gammon can be credited as writing the first e-government research paper. Though not mentioning the word "e-government", his article "The Automatic Handling of Office Paper Work" tackled tactics regarding government processes and information systems or electronic machinery. In the Philippines, the administration now uses social media to converse more with its citizens for it makes people feel more in touch with the highest official in the land.
Mirandilla-Santos, it has been suggested from research in the Philippines, that an average citizen does not actively seek information about politics and government, even during an election campaign.
Civic engagement through social media also takes the shape of political blogs. However, in some cases, particularly for the Philippines, it was disputed that those political bloggers only represent an elite few, not a common representation of the populace, nor various representations. Political bloggers in the Philippines were generally of a specific demographic, mostly young males, 25—34 years old, Metro-Manila based, with a college level education and making a high income.
According to Mary Grace P. Information and Communication Technology ICT have proved its usefulness and influence to different businesses all around the world.